Hilf al-Fudul (League of the Virtuous, the Virtuous Pact, the Fadul Alliance) (Arabic: حلف الفضول translit: Hilf al-Fudool) was a pact made amongst the Arab tribes around Makkah after the Fijaar War prior to Prophethood. Fudul comes from Fadl which means nobility, superiority and virtue. The allegiance was also known as Hilf Al-Mutayyabeen (The Pledge of the Perfumed) because those who agreed placed their signatures by putting their hands in henna and then on the Kabaah.
Al’Aas ibn Waail purchased merchandise from a merchant from the region of Zubaid in Yemen. Al’Aas being a chief and nobleman amongst the Qureysh decided not to pay and when the merchant approached the other Chiefs of Quraysh they sided with Al’Aas for being one of their own. The man shared his plight at the Kaaba asking the descendants of Faihr (Quraysh) to help him. Az-Zubair ibn Abdul-Muttalib became angry and called to his people, “Will no one help him!”
The community responded to Zuabir’s call and meeting was convened during the month of Dhul-Qai-dah at the home of Abdullah ibn Jud’aan. Members of Banu Hashim, Banu Zuhrah, Banu Muttalib, Banu Asad, and Banu Taim ibn Murrah who were present swore to Allah and pledged that they would stand together in support of any victim against the oppressor. The youngest attendees to the pact were Muhammad ibn Abdullah (ﷺ) and Abu Bakr As-Siddeeq.
The Alliance proceeded to seize the merchandise from Al’Aas and returned it to its rightful owner.
Prophet’s Presence and Response
Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) spoke of his attendance at the forming of the allegiance after Prophethood. He said, “I witnessed a treaty at the home of Abdullah bin Jud’aan. If I am asked to attend such a meeting now, I would answer.”
Also, ‘Abdu’r-Rahman ibn ‘Awf reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “I was present with my uncles at the alliance of the perfumed (Hilf al-Mutayyabin). I would not wish to break it, even for red camels.”
حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ اللهِ بْنُ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ، قَالَ: حَدَّثَنَا ابْنُ عُلَيَّةَ، عَنْ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ إِسْحَاقَ، عَنِ الزُّهْرِيِّ، عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ جُبَيْرِ بْنِ مُطْعِمٍ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، عَنْ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ عَوْفٍ، أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ: شَهِدْتُ مَعَ عُمُومَتِي حِلْفَ الْمُطَيَّبِينَ، فَمَا أُحِبُّ أَنْ أَنْكُثَهُ، وَأَنَّ لِي حُمْرَ النَّعَمِ
Morals and Lessons
- The Prophet (ﷺ) clearly felt honoured for being able to participate in the alliance
- Establishing justice is a praise worthy universal act. It is not a relative value
- Even in a society filled with pervasive evil’s like idol worship, fornication, wrong doing and usury, noble men and women still exist who will stand and perform virtuous acts
- Wrong doing in all forms is unacceptable regardless if one is muslim or not, pious or sinner, rich or poor
- When witnessing wrongs, others in society must aid those who need help
- A Muslim must strive to have a positive impact on society
- It is permissible to form alliances similar to intent and content to Fudool Alliance if the established goal is recognized and encouraged in Shariah and does not lead to harm of the Ummah
- It is permissible to form alliances with non-muslims if justice is being served, doing so is a part of enjoining good and forbidding evil
O believers! Do not violate Allah’s rituals ˹of pilgrimage˺, the sacred months, the sacrificial animals, the ˹offerings decorated with˺ garlands, nor those ˹pilgrims˺ on their way to the Sacred House seeking their Lord’s bounty and pleasure. When pilgrimage has ended, you are allowed to hunt. Do not let the hatred of a people who once barred you from the Sacred Mosque provoke you to transgress. Cooperate with one another in goodness and righteousness, and do not cooperate in sin and transgression. And be mindful of Allah. Surely Allah is severe in punishment.
﴾ يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تُحِلُّوا شَعَائِرَ اللَّهِ وَلَا الشَّهْرَ الْحَرَامَ وَلَا الْهَدْيَ وَلَا الْقَلَائِدَ وَلَا آمِّينَ الْبَيْتَ الْحَرَامَ يَبْتَغُونَ فَضْلًا مِّن رَّبِّهِمْ وَرِضْوَانًا ۚ وَإِذَا حَلَلْتُمْ فَاصْطَادُوا ۚ وَلَا يَجْرِمَنَّكُمْ شَنَآنُ قَوْمٍ أَن صَدُّوكُمْ عَنِ الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ أَن تَعْتَدُوا ۘ وَتَعَاوَنُوا عَلَى الْبِرِّ وَالتَّقْوَىٰ ۖ وَلَا تَعَاوَنُوا عَلَى الْإِثْمِ وَالْعُدْوَانِ ۚ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ ۖ إِنَّ اللَّهَ شَدِيدُ الْعِقَابِ ﴿
- Jump up↑ Sunan Al-Bayhaqi AlKubra: 12859
- Jump up↑ As-Seerah An-Nabawiyyah by Ibn Hishaam (1/134), and Fiqh us-Seerah by Al-Ghadbaan (pg.102)
- Jump up↑ AlAdab al-Mufrad 567. Book of General Behaviour, 256 Chapter: The Alliance of the Jahiliyya بَابُ حِلْفِ الْجَاهِلِيَّةِ, in book reference book 30, hadith 30. – Graded Sahih (Authentic) Al-Albanee
- Jump up↑ Saheeh As-Seerah An-Nabawiyyah by Ibraaheem Al-‘Alee (pg.59)
- Jump up↑ The Noble Life of The Prophet by Dr. Ali Muhammad As-Sallaabee, v1, p.103
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